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  • Testosterone~The King Hormone

    This proves that testosterone is dose dependant. In other words the more you use the more it works to increase IGF-1, strength, fat free mass, size and power.


    Vol. 281, Issue 6, E1172-E1181, December 2001

    Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men

    Shalender Bhasin1, Linda Woodhouse1, Richard Casaburi3, Atam B. Singh1, Dimple Bhasin3, Nancy Berman3, Xianghong Chen4, Kevin E. Yarasheski4, Lynne Magliano2, Connie Dzekov1, Jeanne Dzekov1, Rachelle Bross3, Jeffrey Phillips3, Indrani Sinha-Hikim1, Ruoquing Shen1, and Thomas W. Storer2

    1 Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles 90059; 2 Laboratory for Exercise Sciences, El Camino College, and 3 Harbor-University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502; and 4 Biomedical Mass Spectrometric Research Resource, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110

    ABSTRACT

    Testosterone increases muscle mass and strength and regulates other physiological processes, but we do not know whether testosterone effects are dose dependent and whether dose requirements for maintaining various androgen-dependent processes are similar. To determine the effects of graded doses of testosterone on body composition, muscle size, strength, power, sexual and cognitive functions, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), plasma lipids, hemoglobin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, 61 eugonadal men, 18-35 yr, were randomized to one of five groups to receive monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion, and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate for 20 wk. Energy and protein intakes were standardized. The administration of the GnRH agonist plus graded doses of testosterone resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 253, 306, 542, 1,345, and 2,370 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Fat-free mass increased dose dependently in men receiving 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone weekly (change +3.4, 5.2, and 7.9 kg, respectively). The changes in fat-free mass were highly dependent on testosterone dose (P = 0.0001) and correlated with log testosterone concentrations (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001). Changes in leg press strength, leg power, thigh and quadriceps muscle volumes, hemoglobin, and IGF-I were positively correlated with testosterone concentrations, whereas changes in fat mass and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were negatively correlated. Sexual function, visual-spatial cognition and mood, and PSA levels did not change significantly at any dose. We conclude that changes in circulating testosterone concentrations, induced by GnRH agonist and testosterone administration, are associated with testosterone dose- and concentration-dependent changes in fat-free mass, muscle size, strength and power, fat mass, hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol, and IGF-I levels, in conformity with a single linear dose-response relationship. However, different androgen-dependent processes have different testosterone dose-response relationships.
    All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.


  • #2
    Vol. 283, Issue 1, E154-E164, July 2002

    Testosterone-induced increase in muscle size in healthy young men is associated with muscle fiber hypertrophy

    Indrani Sinha-Hikim1, Jorge Artaza1, Linda Woodhouse1, Nestor Gonzalez-Cadavid1, Atam B. Singh1, Martin I. Lee1, Thomas W. Storer1, Richard Casaburi2, Ruoquing Shen1, and Shalender Bhasin1

    1 Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, 90059; and 2 Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Physiology and Medicine, Harbor-University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California 90509

    ABSTRACT

    Administration of replacement doses of testosterone to healthy hypogonadal men and supraphysiological doses to eugonadal men increases muscle size. To determine whether testosterone-induced increase in muscle size is due to muscle fiber hypertrophy, 61 healthy men, 18-35 yr of age, received monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg testosterone enanthate (TE) for 20 wk. Thigh muscle volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 39 men before and after 20 wk of combined treatment with GnRH agonist and testosterone. Administration of GnRH agonist plus TE resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 234, 289, 695, 1,344, and 2,435 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Graded doses of testosterone administration were associated with testosterone dose and concentration-dependent increase in muscle volume measured by MRI (changes in vastus lateralis volume, 4, +7, +15, +32, and +48 ml at 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively). Changes in cross-sectional areas of both type I and II fibers were dependent on testosterone dose and significantly correlated with total (r = 0.35, and 0.44, P < 0.0001 for type I and II fibers, respectively) and free (r = 0.34 and 0.35, P < 0.005) testosterone concentrations during treatment. The men receiving 300 and 600 mg of TE weekly experienced significant increases from baseline in areas of type I (baseline vs. 20 wk, 3,176 ± 186 vs. 4,201 ± 252 µm2, P < 0.05 at 300-mg dose, and 3,347 ± 253 vs. 4,984 ± 374 µm2, P = 0.006 at 600-mg dose) muscle fibers; the men in the 600-mg group also had significant increments in cross-sectional area of type II (4,060 ± 401 vs. 5,526 ± 544 µm2, P = 0.03) fibers. The relative proportions of type I and type II fibers did not change significantly after treatment in any group. The myonuclear number per fiber increased significantly in men receiving the 300- and 600-mg doses of TE and was significantly correlated with testosterone concentration and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. In conclusion, the increases in muscle volume in healthy eugonadal men treated with graded doses of testosterone are associated with concentration-dependent increases in cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear number. We conclude that the testosterone induced increase in muscle volume is due to muscle fiber hypertrophy.
    All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

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    • #3
      Not only does Testosterone make your muscles bigger but it also is associated with more satellite cells.




      Testosterone-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with an increase in satellite cell number in healthy, young men

      Indrani Sinha-Hikim,1 Stephen M. Roth,2 Martin I. Lee,1 and Shalender Bhasin1

      1Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California 90059; and 2Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvamia 15261
      Submitted 22 August 2002 ; accepted in final form 26 March 2003

      ABSTRACT


      Testosterone (T) supplementation in men induces muscle fiber hypertrophy. We hypothesized that T-induced increase in muscle fiber size is associated with a dose-dependent increase in satellite cell number. We quantitated satellite cell and myonuclear number by using direct counting and spatial orientation methods in biopsies of vastus lateralis obtained at baseline and after 20 wk of treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a 125-, 300-, or 600-mg weekly dose of T enanthate. T administration was associated with a significant increase in myonuclear number in men receiving 300- and 600-mg doses. The posttreatment percent satellite cell number, obtained by direct counting, differed significantly among the three groups (ANCOVA P < 0.000001); the mean posttreatment values (5.0 and 15.0%) in men treated with 300- and 600-mg doses were greater than baseline (2.5 and 2.5%, respectively, P < 0.05 vs. baseline). The absolute satellite cell number measured by spatial orientation at 20 wk (1.5 and 4.0/mm) was significantly greater than baseline (0.3 and 0.6/mm) in men receiving the 300- and 600-mg doses (P < 0.05). The change in percent satellite cell number correlated with changes in total (r = 0.548) and free T concentrations (r = 0.468). Satellite cell and mitochondrial areas were significantly higher and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio lower after treatment with 300- and 600-mg doses. We conclude that T-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is associated with an increase in satellite cell number, a proportionate increase in myonuclear number, and changes in satellite cell ultrastructure.
      All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

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      • #4
        In this study 600mg per week of Testosterone Enanthate increased the number of Androgen Receptors in healthy men after 20 weeks of administration.


        Androgen Receptor in Human Skeletal Muscle and Cultured Muscle Satellite Cells: Up-Regulation by Androgen Treatment

        Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Wayne E. Taylor, Nestor F. Gonzalez-Cadavid, Wei Zheng and Shalender Bhasin
        Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California 90059

        Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Shalender Bhasin, M.D., Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, 1731 East 120th Street, Los Angeles, California 90059. E-mail: [email protected].


        Abstract

        Androgens stimulate myogenesis, but we do not know what cell types within human skeletal muscle express the androgen receptor (AR) protein and are the target of androgen action. Because testosterone promotes the commitment of pluripotent, mesenchymal cells into myogenic lineage, we hypothesized that AR would be expressed in mesenchymal precursor cells in the skeletal muscle. AR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, confocal immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy in sections of vastus lateralis from healthy men before and after treatment with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone enanthate. Satellite cell cultures from human skeletal muscle were also tested for AR expression. AR protein was expressed predominantly in satellite cells, identified by their location outside sarcolemma and inside basal lamina, and by CD34 and C-met staining. Many myonuclei in muscle fibers also demonstrated AR immunostaining. Additionally, CD34+ stem cells in the interstitium, fibroblasts, and mast cells expressed AR immunoreactivity. AR expression was also observed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed aggregation of immunogold particles in nucleoli of satellite cells and myonuclei; testosterone treatment increased nucleolar AR density. In enriched cultures of human satellite cells, more than 95% of cells stained for CD34 and C-met, confirming their identity as satellite cells, and expressed AR protein. AR mRNA and protein expression in satellite cell cultures was confirmed by RT-PCR, reverse transcription and real-time PCR, sequencing of RT-PCR product, and Western blot analysis. Incubation of satellite cell cultures with supraphysiological testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations (100 nM testosterone and 30 nM dihydrotestosterone) modestly increased AR protein levels. We conclude that AR is expressed in several cell types in human skeletal muscle, including satellite cells, fibroblasts, CD34+ precursor cells, vascular endothelial, smooth muscle cells, and mast cells. Satellite cells are the predominant site of AR expression. These observations support the hypothesis that androgens increase muscle mass in part by acting on several cell types to regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells in the skeletal muscle.

        Full study;

        http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/con...ull/89/10/5245
        All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

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        • #5
          Awesome info brother.

          I love testosterone.

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          • #6
            Great info
            A clean fighter in a dirty game

            Comment


            • #7
              J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;91(8):3024-33. Epub 2006 May 16.

              Effects of testosterone supplementation on skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy and satellite cells in community-dwelling older men.

              Sinha-Hikim I, Cornford M, Gaytan H, Lee ML, Bhasin S.
              Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Charles R. Drew University, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA.

              Abstract

              OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determined the effects of graded doses of testosterone on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and satellite cell number and replication in older men.
              PARTICIPANTS: Healthy men, 60-75 yr old, received a long-acting GnRH agonist to suppress endogenous testosterone production and 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg testosterone enanthate im weekly for 20 wk.
              METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, light and confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy were used to perform fiber typing and quantitate myonuclear and satellite cell number in vastus lateralis biopsies, obtained before and after 20 wk of treatment.
              RESULTS: Testosterone administration in older men was associated with dose-dependent increases in CSA of both types I and II fibers. Satellite cell number increased dose dependently at the three highest doses (3% at baseline vs. 6.2, 9.2, and 13.0% at 125, 300, and 600 mg doses, P < 0.05). Testosterone administration was associated with an increase in the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen+ satellite cells (1.8% at baseline vs. 3.9, 7.5, and 13% at 125, 300, and 600 mg doses, P < 0.005). The expression of activated Notch, examined only in the 300-mg group (baseline, 2.3 vs. 9.0% after treatment, P < 0.005), increased in satellite cells after testosterone treatment. The expression of myogenin (baseline, 6.2 vs. 20.7% after treatment, P < 0.005), examined only in the 300-mg group, increased significantly in muscle fiber nuclei after testosterone treatment, but Numb expression did not change.
              CONCLUSIONS: Older men respond to graded doses of testosterone with a dose-dependent increase in muscle fiber CSA and satellite cell number. Testosterone-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in older men is associated with increased satellite cell replication and activation.


              PMID: 16705073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
              All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

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              • #8
                So Heavy, with the termination of AAS use will the muscle cells still have multiple nuclei even after atrophy?

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                • #9
                  very good thread.. While it's pretty much been known by anyone that has done mutiple gram cycles.. The more you inject, the more you grow.. But there also has to be some reasonoimg put forth before deciding to do 3 grams of test a week.. You had better know just exactly how your body and mind will react to such a surge in hormones.. You will most likely see side effects out the ass.
                  So while you may see only that the more you takle, the more you grow. Knowing what comes along with this desicion is also a must

                  alot of pretty damn fine threads Heavyiron
                  Do you mind if I use this or you could post it over at my place ..
                  thanks
                  bass
                  basskilleronline.com

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    I've always wondered: Why the fuck does it make certain people turn red? As in the skin.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by basskiller View Post
                      very good thread.. While it's pretty much been known by anyone that has done mutiple gram cycles.. The more you inject, the more you grow.. But there also has to be some reasonoimg put forth before deciding to do 3 grams of test a week.. You had better know just exactly how your body and mind will react to such a surge in hormones.. You will most likely see side effects out the ass.
                      So while you may see only that the more you takle, the more you grow. Knowing what comes along with this desicion is also a must

                      alot of pretty damn fine threads Heavyiron
                      Do you mind if I use this or you could post it over at my place ..
                      thanks
                      bass
                      Of course brother!
                      All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        an abundance of hormones coursing through their body
                        basskilleronline.com

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2560-75.

                          Clinical review 1: Adverse effects of testosterone therapy in adult men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

                          Fernández-Balsells MM, Murad MH, Lane M, Lampropulos JF, Albuquerque F, Mullan RJ, Agrwal N, Elamin MB, Gallegos-Orozco JF, Wang AT, Erwin PJ, Bhasin S, Montori VM.
                          Knowledge and Encounter Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

                          Abstract

                          CONTEXT: The risks of testosterone therapy in men remain poorly understood.
                          OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of testosterone trials to evaluate the adverse effects of testosterone treatment in men.
                          DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2003 through August 2008. Review of reference lists and contact with experts further identified candidate studies.
                          STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies were comparative, randomized, and nonrandomized and reported the effects of testosterone on outcomes of interest (death, cardiovascular events and risk factors, prostate outcomes, and erythrocytosis). Reviewers, working independently and in duplicate, determined study eligibility.
                          DATA EXTRACTION: Reviewers working independently and in duplicate determined the methodological quality of studies and collected descriptive, quality, and outcome data.
                          DATA SYNTHESIS: The methodological quality of the 51 included studies varied from low to medium, and follow-up duration ranged from 3 months to 3 yr. Testosterone treatment was associated with a significant increase in hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.80 g/dl; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45 to 1.14] and hematocrit (WMD, 3.18%; 95% CI, 1.35 to 5.01), and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD, -0.49 mg/dl; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13). There was no significant effect on mortality, prostate, or cardiovascular outcomes.
                          CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effects of testosterone therapy include an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit and a small decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These findings are of unknown clinical significance. Current evidence about the safety of testosterone treatment in men in terms of patient-important outcomes is of low quality and is hampered by the brief study follow-up.


                          PMID: 20525906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                          All posts are for entertainment and may contain fiction. Consult a doctor before using any medication.

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